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Data analysis for withings smart watch

6 mins read time


Introduction

Last year my friends gave me a withings steel as a birthday gift. It records automatically the number of steps and the sleep time. In general, It has very good accuracy and It does not require too much interaction. In addition, thanks to recent updates, it is able to know whether I am doing other activities like riding a bike, play handball, etc. It has been almost one year and I wanted to do the annual report about how has been this year in terms of data. I used R to do the analysis because I think it is easy to get beautiful and informative graphs.

Library import

I used the following libraries:

library('ggplot2') # data manipulation
library('scales')
library('zoo') #yearmon
library(RColorBrewer)
theme_set(theme_gray(base_size = 19))

Sleeping data

The data can easily be exported from their website. The sleeping data contains the time when I went to sleep, the time when I woke up, the number of seconds of my light and deep sleep, the time awake during the night and the number of times that I woke up during the night. For a first approach, I just use the time duration of my sleep, using the difference between the time I sleep and woke up.

sleep <- read.csv("input/sleep.csv", header = TRUE, stringsAsFactors=F)
sleep$from <- strptime(sleep$from,"%Y-%m-%d %H:%M")
sleep$to <- strptime(sleep$to,"%Y-%m-%d %H:%M")
sleep$duration <-  difftime(sleep$to, sleep$from ,units="hour")
ggplot(aes(x = sleep$to, y = sleep$duration), data = sleep) + geom_point(na.rm=T) +
	scale_y_continuous(name="Sleep time [hours]",breaks=seq(2,12,1),limits=c(2,11)) +
	scale_x_datetime(name="Date",breaks = date_breaks("1 months"),
        labels = date_format("%b")) +
 	stat_smooth(na.rm=T) 

During my last PhD year I used to sleep less than 7 hours in average. I defended my PhD at the end of September, after that my sleep has increased steadily to a little less than 8 hours.

# facet by year ~ month, and each subgraph will show week-of-month versus weekday the year is simple
sleep$year <- as.numeric(as.POSIXlt(sleep$to)$year+1900)
sleep$month<-as.numeric(as.POSIXlt(sleep$to)$mon+1)

# turn months into ordered facors to control the appearance/ordering in the presentation
sleep$monthf<-factor(sleep$month,levels=as.character(1:12),labels=c("Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","May","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep","Oct","Nov","Dec"),ordered=TRUE)

# the day of week is again easily found
sleep$weekday = as.numeric(format(as.POSIXlt(sleep$to),"%u"))
 
# again turn into factors to control appearance/abbreviation and ordering
# I use the reverse function rev here to order the week top down in the graph
# you can cut it out to reverse week order
sleep$weekdayf<-factor(sleep$weekday,levels=rev(1:7),labels=rev(c("Mon","Tue","Wed","Thu","Fri","Sat","Sun")),ordered=TRUE)
 
# the monthweek part is a bit trickier - first a factor which cuts the data into month chunks
sleep$yearmonth<-as.yearmon(sleep$to)
sleep$yearmonthf<-factor(sleep$yearmonth)
 
# then find the "week of year" for each day
sleep$week <- as.numeric(format(as.POSIXlt(sleep$to),"%W"))
 
# and now for each monthblock we normalize the week to start at 1
sleep <- do.call("rbind",as.list(by(sleep, sleep["yearmonthf"], transform, monthweek=1+week-min(week))))
#sleep <- ddply(sleep,.(yearmonthf),transform,monthweek=1+week-min(week))
#sleep$monthweek <- 1+sleep$week-min(sleep$week)
 
# Now for the plot
ggplot(sleep, aes(monthweek, weekdayf, fill = sleep$duration)) +
	geom_tile(colour = "white") + facet_grid(year~monthf) +
	scale_fill_gradient() + xlab("Week of Month") +
	ylab("") + labs(fill="Sleep hours \n") 

I tend to sleep longer on weekends. There are some empty spaces that correspond to days when I didn’t have the watch, because I broke the bracelet a couple of times. Still it is very cheap to replace on ebay.

Activity time

Regarding the activity time. I have the information about the number of steps that I have done each day. A number of calories and distance is calculated using this information. The watch doesn’t have an altimeter so I don’t have information about the elevation.

activities <- read.csv("input/activities.csv", header = TRUE, stringsAsFactors=F)
activities$Date <- strptime(activities$Date,"%Y-%m-%d")
str(activities)
## 'data.frame':	347 obs. of  5 variables:
##  $ Date           : POSIXlt, format: "2017-04-18" "2017-04-17" ...
##  $ Steps          : int  2208 5206 7287 5455 5212 5367 4577 5407 4930 16677 ...
##  $ Distance..m.   : num  1.8 5.44 6.89 4.37 4.22 4.35 3.71 4.35 3.93 12.8 ...
##  $ Elevation..m.  : int  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...
##  $ Active.calories: int  64 308 305 156 150 155 132 155 140 458 ...
p <- ggplot(aes(x = activities$Date, y = activities$Steps), data = activities) +
        geom_point() + scale_y_continuous(name="Steps",breaks=seq(0,40000,5000)) +
        scale_x_datetime(name="Date",breaks = date_breaks("1 months"), labels =
                         date_format("%b")) +
        stat_smooth(na.rm=T)
ggsave(file="figure/activity.svg", plot=p, width=10, height=8)

During the last summer I have walked more in average. I tend to go out more during the sunny days. In addition I have been walking less than last year because I don’t have to walk to much to go working.

activities$year <- as.numeric(as.POSIXlt(activities$Date)$year+1900)
activities$month<-as.numeric(as.POSIXlt(activities$Date)$mon+1)

# turn months into ordered facors to control the appearance/ordering in the presentation
activities$monthf<-factor(activities$month,levels=as.character(1:12),labels=c("Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","May","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep","Oct","Nov","Dec"),ordered=TRUE)

# the day of week is again easily found
activities$weekday = as.numeric(format(as.POSIXlt(activities$Date),"%u"))

p <- ggplot(aes(x = activities$weekday, y = activities$Steps), data = activities) +
        geom_point() + scale_y_continuous(name="Steps",breaks=seq(0,40000,5000)) +
        scale_x_discrete(breaks=c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7), limits=c(1,2,3,4,5,6,7),
                   labels=c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday", "Saturday", "Sunday")) +
        xlab("Weekday") +
        stat_smooth(na.rm=T)
ggsave(file="figure/activity_weekday.svg", plot=p, width=10, height=8)

I tend to walk more during the weekends.

Lets see how it goes this summer !

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